Superradiant Bounds on Ultralight Fields
(see Brito, Cardoso and Pani, Superradiance, Lectures Notes in Physics 906 (2020); arXiv:1501.0657)
Excluded Region (in eV)  Source 
References 

* 5.2x10^{13}< m_{S }<6.5x10^{12} * 1.1x10^{13}< m_{V }<8.2x10^{12} * 2.9x10^{13}< m_{T }<9.8x10^{12}

Direct bounds from absence of spin in Cyg X1 

3.8×10^{−14}< m_{S }< 2x3.4×10^{−11} 5.5×10^{−20}< m_{S }< 1.3×10^{−16} 2.5×10^{−21}< m_{S}< 1.2×10^{−20} 6.2×10^{−15}< m_{V }< 3.9×10^{−11} 2.8×10^{−22}< m_{V} < 1.9×10^{−16} 2.2×10^{−14} < m_{T }< 2.8 ×10^{−11} 1.8×10^{−20}< m_{T }< 1.8×10^{−17} 6.4×10^{−22} < m_{T }< 7.7×10^{−21}

Indirect bounds from BHmassspin measurements 

1.2×10^{−13}< m_{S }<1.8×10^{−13} 2.0 ×10^{−13} < m_{S }< 2.5 ×10^{−12} m_{V}: NA m_{T}: NA

Null results from blind allsky searches for continuous GW signals 
[1],[2] 
6.4×10^{−13}< m_{S }<8.0×10^{−13} m_{V}: NA m_{T}: NA

Null results from searches for continuous GW signals from Cygnus X1 
[1], [2] 
2.0×10^{−13}< m_{S }<3.8×10^{−13} 0.8 ×10^{−13} eV < m_{V}< 6.0 ×10^{−13} eV m_{T}: NA

Negative searches for a GW background  [1], [2], [3], [4] 
5×10^{−13}< m_{S }<3×10^{−12} m_{V }~ 10−12 m_{T}: NA

Bounds from pulsar timing  [1], [2] 
2.9×10^{−21}< m_{S }<4.6×10^{−21} 8.5×10^{−22}< m_{V }<4.6×10^{−21} 7.2 ×10^{−22} < m_{T }< 2.5 ×10^{−20}

Bounds from mass and spin measurement of M87 with EHT 
[1],[2] 
* Brito, Cardoso and Pani, Superradiance, Lectures Notes in Physics 906 (2015)
Direct bounds from absence of spin down in Cyg X1
[1] V. Cardoso, O. J. C. Dias, G. S. Hartnett,M. Middleton,P. Pani, and J. E. Santos, “Constraining the mass of dark photons and axionlike particles through black holesuperradiance,”JCAP1803(2018) no. 03, 043,arXiv:1801.01420 [grqc]
[2] R. Brito, S. Grillo, and P. Pani, “Black hole superradiant instability from ultralightspin2 fields,”arXiv:2002.04055 [grqc]
Indirect bounds from BH massspin measurements
[1] A. Arvanitaki, M. Baryakhtar, and X. Huang, “Discovering the QCD Axion withBlack Holes and Gravitational Waves,”Phys. Rev.D91(2015) no. 8, 084011,arXiv:1411.2263 [hepph]
[2] P. Pani, V. Cardoso, L. Gualtieri, E. Berti, and A. Ishibashi, “Black hole bombs andphoton mass bounds,”Phys.Rev.Lett.109(2012) 131102,arXiv:1209.0465 [grqc]
[3] R. Brito, V. Cardoso, and P. Pani, “Massive spin2 fields on black hole spacetimes:Instability of the Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions and bounds on the graviton mass,”Phys. Rev.D88(2013) 023514,arXiv:1304.6725 [grqc]
[4] M. Baryakhtar, R. Lasenby, and M. Teo, “Black Hole Superradiance Signatures of Ultralight Vectors,”Phys. Rev.D96(2017) no. 3, 035019, arXiv:1704.05081 [hepph]
[5] R. Brito, S. Ghosh, E. Barausse, E. Berti, V. Cardoso, I. Dvorkin, A. Klein, and P. Pani,“Gravitational wave searches for ultralight bosons with LIGO and LISA,”Phys. Rev.D96(2017) no. 6, 064050,arXiv:1706.06311 [grqc]
[6] M. J. Stott and D. J. E. Marsh, “Black hole spin constraints on the mass spectrum andnumber of axionlike fields,”Phys. Rev.D98(2018) no. 8, 083006,arXiv:1805.02016[hepph]
[7] V. Cardoso, O. J. C. Dias, G. S. Hartnett, M. Middleton, P. Pani, and J. E. Santos,“Constraining the mass of dark photons and axionlike particles through blackholesuperradiance,”JCAP1803(2018) no. 03, 043, arXiv:1801.01420 [grqc]
[8] R. Brito, S. Grillo, and P. Pani, “Black hole superradiant instability from ultralightspin2 fields,” arXiv:2002.04055 [grqc]
[9] M. J. Stott, “Ultralight Bosonic Field Mass Bounds from Astrophysical Black Hole Spin,” arXiv:2009.07206 [hepph]
[10] C. Unal, F. Pacucci, and A. Loeb, “Properties of Ultralight Bosons from Heavy Quasar Spins via Superradiance,” arXiv:2012.12790 [hepph]
Null results from blind allsky searches for continuous GW signals
[1] C. Palombaet al., “Direct constraints on ultralight boson mass from searches for continuous gravitational waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.123(2019) 171101, arXiv:1909.08854[astroph.HE]
[2] S. J. Zhu, M. Baryakhtar, M. A. Papa, D. Tsuna, N. Kawanaka, and H.B. Eggen stein, “Characterizing the continuous gravitationalwave signal from boson clouds around Galactic isolated black holes,” arXiv:2003.03359 [grqc]
Null results from searches for continuous GW signals from Cygnus X1
[1] L. Sun, R. Brito, and M. Isi, “Search for ultralight bosons in Cygnus X1 with AdvancedLIGO,”arXiv:1909.11267 [grqc]
[2] H. Yoshino and H. Kodama, “Probing the string axiverse by gravitational waves fromCygnus X1,”PTEP2015(2015) no. 6, 061E01, arXiv:1407.2030 [grqc]
Negative searches for a GW background
[1] R. Brito, S. Ghosh, E. Barausse, E. Berti, V. Cardoso, I. Dvorkin, A. Klein, and P. Pani,“Stochastic and resolvable gravitational waves from ultralight bosons,”Phys. Rev. Lett.119(2017) no. 13, 131101, arXiv:1706.05097 [grqc]
[2] R. Brito, S. Ghosh, E. Barausse, E. Berti, V. Cardoso, I. Dvorkin, A. Klein, and P. Pani,“Gravitational wave searches for ultralight bosons with LIGO and LISA,”Phys. Rev.D96(2017) no. 6, 064050, arXiv:1706.06311 [grqc]
[4] L. Tsukada, R. Brito, W. E. East, and N. Siemonsen, “Modeling and search ing for a stochastic gravitationalwave background from ultralight vector bosons,” arXiv:2011.06995 [astroph.HE]
Bounds from pulsar timing
[1] V. Cardoso, P. Pani, and T.T. Yu, “Superradiance in rotating stars and pulsartiming constraints on dark photons,”Phys. Rev.D95(2017) no. 12, 124056, arXiv:1704.06151 [grqc]
[2] D. E. Kaplan, S. Rajendran, and P. Riggins, “Particle Probes with Superradiant Pulsars,”arXiv:1908.10440 [hepph]
Bounds from mass and spin measurement of M87 with EHT
[1] H. Davoudiasl and P. B. Denton, “Ultralight Boson Dark Matter and Event Horizon Telescope Observations of M87*,” Phys. Rev. Lett.123(2019) no. 2, 021102, arXiv:1904.09242 [astroph.CO]
[2] M. J. Stott, “Ultralight Bosonic Field Mass Bounds from Astrophysical Black Hole Spin,” arXiv:2009.07206 [hepph]